sorry to hear that the A10 was obviously borked on your Fairphone.
For the missing Caller ID there is already a solution > Bug: Android 10 FP3 - Unknown Caller
The charging issue should not be related to the upgrade. What charger and cable do you have? Have you tried another one to exclude yours as a possible culprit?
Any unsual values at Settings > Battery > Battery usage (via the three dots in the upper right corner)?
Which version of Fairphone OS did you have before the upgrade? Did you modify the OS, for example by disabling Google services, or was it just „stock“?
You could revert to Android 9, but you would lose all your data. Another option would be a factory reset.